Low-Cost Low-Tech Foolproof Cyber Defense: A Phone Call

The FBI warned again Monday about the dangers of “business email compromise.” A posting on its Phoenix bureau website says known losses from these scams exceeded $2.3 billion from October 2013 through February this year. The Bureau has documented cases involving 17,642 businesses of all sizes in 79 countries around the world. The average loss in Arizona was $25 to $75 thousand. My personal experience in Indiana has usually involved cases above the high end.

This post is about protecting your cash, but the same schemes are used to get information like Wall Street law firm files on pending transactions to use for insider trading. The scam is also called “spear phishing,” a more pointed and dangerous form of phishing.

The steps in the scam follow a simple pattern. First, the hackers get access to a personal email account and read your emails. Second, they set up an email account with an address so similar that people don’t notice the slight difference between it and your real account.

If I’m the target, they might open a “craigpintus@gmail.com” account which looks like “craigpinkus@gmail.com.” Try reading them at a glance in 8pt. Arial font on the From line.

Last, they email someone I correspond with who handles accounting at my firm. They have a good idea who that is because they invest the time to read my email traffic. The phony email says an amount of money must be transferred urgently to a person outside the firm I also correspond with, and gives wire transfer instructions. If questions are fired back, the hacker will give fast responses and stress the urgency of the transfer.

People believing they are doing their job authorize wire transfers to thieves every minute of the day because they think they know who is requesting the transfer and where it is going. The transfer is actually going to make three or more jumps to different financial institutions before heading to its ultimate destination. That could be in the United States or outside. If the money stays in the US, it will go to an account opened for the scam with false credentials, it will be withdrawn immediately, and the account abandoned.

You can and should train everyone in your organization on how to spot incoming scams. There are software solutions you may have in place to identify and hold suspicious emails until released. But people get tired or distracted and the software is only as good as the person deciding what emails to let through.

The one foolproof defense is a simple rule: always call the person requesting the transfer. You can already hear the conversation. “I’m calling about that wire transfer to Ms. Jones.” “What wire transfer?” And your funds will stay where they belong every time.

 

 

Posted in Cybersecurity | Tagged | Leave a comment

Flo & Eddie’s California Dreams Still Alive

I’ve been writing since 2014 about the quest by Flo & Eddie, the former Turtles, to win copyright royalties under state law for their pre-1972 records which federal copyright law doesn’t protect. The latest chapter ended yesterday when Judge Gutierrez in California denied Sirius XM’s motion to stay Flo & Eddie’s certified class action there. Sirius wants the lawsuit frozen until the Ninth Circuit court of appeals decides Pandora’s appeal of Flo & Eddie’s victory against them.

Sirius asked for the stay last November arguing the Pandora appeal involved the same “class members, the same claims, the same law, and even the same pre-1972 recordings.” After Judge Gutierrez certified Flo & Eddie’s class action last year, however, Sirius was turned down by the Ninth Circuit in August on a request to review the certification.

An effort to get all the judges of the Ninth Circuit to review the class action certification failed in November. The Sirius stay motion denied yesterday was their next move. When a federal class action is certified, you’re off to the races of costly and time-consuming discovery.

Sirius emphasized all the judicial turbulence involving the questions of whether three state’s laws gave pre-1972 sound recording rights. They beat Flo & Eddie in Florida and that case is on appeal to the Eleventh Circuit. Sirius lost in New York, and that appeal to the Second Circuit has oral argument set for February 2. Sirius also cited nine Flo & Eddie copycat cases filed in California federal courts alone.

One of Sirius’ main arguments was that freezing the class action until a ruling possibly this year in the Pandora appeal would conserve judicial resources. Class actions can impose a great deal of work on a federal judge. A stay would also protect Sirius from the legal expense and disruption of the class action which could be a total loss if the Ninth Circuit rules in Pandora’s favor on the merits.

Flo & Eddie’s response early this month makes Sirius sound like an army using a ceasefire to quietly take back territory. They argued the stay request came from “SiriusXM’s desire for an unsupervised playing field upon which to continue its campaign of crippling the certified class by engaging in improper communications with class members and entering into piecemeal settlements outside of the purview of class counsel and the Court.”

Sirius wasn’t pleased, but its response doesn’t exactly deny they were talking to class members. They stressed there have been no improper communications and that record company licensors, apparently the people they’ve been talking to, are sophisticated businesses who know what they’re doing.

The court’s order yesterday says nothing beyond the stay motion is denied. The opportunity to conserve judicial resources wasn’t seized, but the court’s reasoning is a mystery. Sirius may try again for Ninth Circuit help while the Pandora case is pending.

But one event may have helped persuade the court to keep the class action moving ahead. Last June, Sirius filed a report with the Securities Exchange Commission saying it was paying $210 million to the three major record companies and ABKO records to settle their me-too Flo & Eddie lawsuit against it and get pre-1972 song rights to their catalogs.

I wrote at the time the “SiriusXM deal may mean that Flo & Eddie won’t try to settle and instead go for a jury trial on the amount of damages their class members are entitled to.” That seems to be playing out. And it’s not the worst place for Flo & Eddie to be. They’re in the judicial district where a jury awarded Marvin Gaye’s heirs $7.3 million against Pharrell Williams and Robin Thicke for “Blurred Lines.”

 

 

Posted in Copyright, Sound Recordings | Tagged | 2 Comments

NIST Releases Important Update on Cybersecurity for Industrial Control Systems

Updated link to NIST Guide to Industrial Control SystemsMost of us have heard the alarms about cyber threats and the vulnerabilities of US factories, electric utilities, the petroleum industry and other vital parts of our infrastructure. If you’re concerned or working on this issue, you may want to look at an update to the Guide to Industrial Control Systems [ICS] Security issued this afternoon by the Commerce Department’s National Institute of Standards and Technology.  

The report makes an important distinction about cybersecurity when it comes to ICS. The biggest difference is what can happen. While our focus always must be on IT security, industrial control systems pose unique issues not faced in most IT environments. If responses to an ICS attack fail to address it in real-time and almost immediately, people can be injured or killed and the environment can suffer extreme harm.  

Most cybersecurity damage comes in the forms of loss of privacy or cash. We usually face complex tasks of analyzing what happened, what agencies and third parties must be notified, what protections to implement, and how to defend litigation. They are serious enough, but what can happen when ICS is attacked is another order of magnitude.

 Industrial control systems last far longer than most IT. ICS often involves legacy systems lacking password protection, error logs, and can’t be encrypted. They frequently are proprietary systems understood only by skilled specialists who work on particular industry control systems and nothing else.

One of the major additions in this update is a new ICS overlay for utilities, chemical companies, food manufacturers, and automakers. An executive overview introduces the full 247 report titled NIST Special Publication 800-82 Revision 2. Public comment periods are set and feedback is requested.  

Living in an era of constant threats, it makes sense to have someone invest time in this update at most organizations with substantial industrial control systems. As soon as the report was released I sent it to my son who is a chemical engineer and has worked on control systems at refineries around the world. He knows how fast and how bad things can get. If you read this far, you probably do too.

 

 

 

NIST Guide to Industrial Control Systems

Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment

Second Circuit Protects Artist Copyright Termination Rights by Reading the Contracts

Santa Claus is Comin’ to Town was written in the 1930’s and recordings of it are playing on radio stations and in stores and restaurants right now. I’ve written often about the complex sections of the Copyright Act that are supposed to allow artists and their heirs to regain the copyrights they signed away decades in the past.

In Baldwin v. EMI Feist Catalog, the Second Circuit this fall gave a lesson about the barriers thrown up in the music industry to stop termination rights from working as intended—and how federal courts can allow artists a chance to jump the barriers.

Fred Coots and Haven Gillespie signed their rights away to Leo Feist, Inc. in 1934 and the company promptly got a copyright registration for the song. Feist was one of the largest music publishing companies in the world at the time and MGM bought a controlling interest in it a year later. Control of the Feist catalog continued to change hands after that, and there were new contracts with the composers in 1951 and 1981.

The Baldwin decision traces the many attempts to give copyright termination notices under the two sections of the Copyright Act which have different rules depending on when the “grant” of rights was made. Note they don’t depend on when a song was written or recorded. What counts is the date of the contracts.

If an author grants or licenses rights before January 1, 1978, there is a 56 year waiting period before the author or her heirs can get the rights back through termination. 17 U.S.C. §304(c). But if the agreement being terminated was signed on or after January 1, 1978, the wait is only 35 years for termination. 17 U.S.C. §203(a). Yes, it’s counterintuitive.

Musical compositions and recordings still making money decades after their debut are not happily turned over to artists or their heirs by the publishing and recording companies who have been enjoying the lucrative longevity of the music. These are often companies with vast catalogs, deep pockets, and excellent lawyers. You can guess which side of the dispute thought the heirs should wait 56 years instead of 35 years.

Artists and their heirs rarely can match the resources they face, and they must be prepared to run a legal marathon. The Coots heirs lost at the district court but kept going. The Second Circuit reversed the district court and a year from now they will regain the rights their ancestor signed away.

The Second Circuit’s decision is forty pages long but not packed with citations to legal precedent. That is because most of the opinion is Judge Livingston’s painstaking analysis of what the 1951 and 1981 contracts actually say and mean under  New York state rules for contract interpretation.

Each copyright termination story has its own unique combination of events and agreements. Although the drafters of the 1976 Copyright Act who gave us the termination provisions presumably wanted to create simple and virtually automatic procedures, they did little to insure that would be the reality starting decades after the Act became law. And the complexity of applying the knotty termination sections to a unique set of facts gives those opposing a termination of rights much raw material for creative arguments.

Lawyers are prone to focus on mastering the details of the Act and relying on the small body of legal precedents on copyright termination to argue that termination is or is not appropriate. They often generalize about how copyright law applies to a situation when the real question is what the operative contracts say and how the court should interpret them. It is surprising how often both sides in the dispute throw caselaw at each other when they should focus on a few words in an agreement. Congratulations to the Second Circuit for going past the generalizations and looking at the deals themselves.

Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment

Pinkus to Present at the Center for Intellectual Property Law and Innovation

cpinkusBose McKinney & Evans LLP partner Craig Pinkus will present at the Center for Intellectual Property Law and Innovation during “The Roberts Court and Its Impact on Intellectual Property Law” presentation on October 27 at the Indiana University Robert H. McKinney School of Law in Indianapolis.

Pinkus will be joined by Robert H. McKinney School of Law’s Professor Gerard Magliocca and Professor Samuel Rosen for the discussion, which begins at 12:45 p.m. in Inlow Hall in Room 259. There is no fee to attend the event, but registration is required. To register for the event, visit http://mckinneylaw.iu.edu/events/current.cfm?eid=369.

A partner in the Intellectual Property Group of Bose McKinney & Evans, Pinkus serves as a member of the Litigation and the Sports, Entertainment and Media Groups. He assists clients with a broad range of disputes and transactions involving all areas of intellectual property, commercial contracts and other complex business disputes.

In addition, Pinkus leads the firm’s Data Breach Response Team. The Data Breach Response Team works with organizations before an immediate threat is identified to prevent possible data breaches, and to advise clients after sensitive information has been compromised by attacks or accidental leaks.

Pinkus has been recognized with several awards and recognitions. For example, he is a recipient of the American Bar Association Silver Gavel Award, which recognizes those working with communications media that have been exemplary in helping to foster the American public’s understanding of the law and the legal system. He has been listed for more than 20 years in The Best Lawyers in America® (biotechnology, entertainment, and technology).  He also has an AV® Peer Review rated by Martindale-Hubbell.  In addition, he was the subject of the 2004 cover story, “Lawyer of Invention,” for the inaugural Indiana Super Lawyers® and has been listed in subsequent editions.

Posted in Intellectual Property | Tagged , , , | Leave a comment

Amateurism Lives To Fight Another Day in O’Bannon v. NCAA

This five year old lawsuit asked if the NCAA’s amateurism rules against compensation for student athletes were in violation of the antitrust laws. The core that made the litigation possible in the first place was the expanding willingness of state legislatures and courts to recognize and enforce rights of publicity─the right to control commercial exploitation of your life if the public is even slightly interested in it. No one questioned the idea that big time college athletes, their faces, numbers, uniforms, and moves were valuable.  

Last year the federal district court in the case decided the amateurism rules violated antitrust law and went beyond that to order a detailed deferred compensation scheme of up to $5000 a year for top football and basketball players to be held in trust and paid to them after they leave school. The Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals today agreed there was an antitrust violation, but the compensation scheme is gone. 

Bose McKinney & Evans LLP attorney Gary R. Roberts is also Dean Emeritus & Gerald L. Bepko Professor of Law at the Indiana University McKinney School of Law. He’s been involved in sports and antitrust law throughout his career and is spending the day today talking to media about the decision.  

He shared this quick comment with me between calls, and if you wonder what the decision really means for the future please read this: 

“Even though the NCAA and its Division I member institutions will breathe a sigh of relief that they now do not have to create those $5,000 per year trust funds for all their football and men’s basketball players (so it’s essentially status quo for now), the decision portends a difficult future for the NCAA in that it finds that any rule the NCAA adopts that limits what student-athletes can do or what they can receive is subject to being held illegal under the antitrust laws if a federal judge thinks a “less restrictive” rule is more fair or better policy. Unless the Supreme Court takes up this case and reverses this decision (which would be a long shot), I think there will now be a big push for Congress to grant some type of antitrust exemption to protect college athletics from an avalanche of antitrust lawsuits beyond the many already filed.”

O’Bannon v NCAA 9th Circuit decisions Sept 30 2015

Posted in Uncategorized | Tagged | Leave a comment

The Tortuous Path to Fashion Design Copyright Protection

There is a steady stream of music copyright cases in federal court. Lawsuits over clothing designs are few and far between. Depending on the source, US music industry revenue is about $15 to $30 billion. Clothing industry revenue in the US is at least ten times more. Knock-off clothing designs are a way of life. Why aren’t there ten times as many copyright lawsuits in the fashion industry?

Part of the answer may be popular hits are as short-lived as the latest fashion design, but the music can keep playing and producing money for decades while old clothing designs must be hunted down in estate sales and vintage clothing shops. Until the designs come back in updated versions.

But the biggest reason fashion design infringement lawsuits are rare is the Copyright Act. It gives apparel no respect. Designers can try to protect their creations under trademark law too, but today’s post is just about the Act.

It covers eight categories of creations or “works.” Music gets two of the eight, “musical compositions” and “sound recordings.” Fashion designs get none.

Companies determined to protect their designs must force them into the category called “pictorial, graphic, and sculptural works.” To make it as hard as possible, the designs must be identifiable “separately from” and be “capable of existing independently” from the “utilitarian” aspects of the useful article. 17 U.S.C. §101,102 (a). They must be a fish that can live out of water.

The European Union has the Regulation on Community which allows registration at the Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market (OHIM) and gives monopoly protection to original designs for renewable periods of five years for a maximum of 25 years. And there is an unregistered right which is automatic and protects against deliberate copying for three years. So everything is protected.

Despite the degree of difficulty under the Copyright Act, Varsity Brands sued Star Athletica for knocking off its cheerleader outfits. And despite a trial court loss, Varsity persevered and was rewarded with a victory at the Sixth Circuit Court of Appeals last month which revived the lawsuit just in time for football season. Varsity Brands, Inc. et al. v Star Athletica LLC, No. 14-5237 (6th Cir. Aug. 19 2015). It goes back to the trial court for another round.

Judge Karen Nelson Moore’s meticulous decision is a roadmap of all the dead ends and detours a design must navigate to get copyright protection. After surveying the approaches to the issue in the various federal appeals courts, she offers a five-question procedure for deciding if a design is protectable.

The five questions sound easy until you realize you’re not dealing with the ordinary meanings of words. The questions use words as they are defined in the Copyright Act and interpreted by the courts.

First, you ask if the design is a pictorial, graphic, or sculptural work. The Act’s definition of the phrase is full of questions with terms like “artistic craftsmanship”

If the answer to the first question is Yes, you must ask if you’re dealing with something with “an intrinsic utilitarian function.” Clothing should give you a Yes, but what does a bow tie do? That is question three, what are the utilitarian functions?

The fourth question asks if a viewer can identify the pictorial, graphic, or sculptural work separately from the utilitarian functions. The last question asks if the separately viewable work can “exist” independently. This all makes great sense if you have a PhD in philosophy, but you must go through it since it’s the only, stingy gift of the Act to apparel.

The decision, over dissent, recognizes the cheerleader outfits as protected by copyright primarily because the protectable elements are mostly fabric design. Fabric designs are the reasons for the oldest European laws which are the ancestors of the EU community regulation.

So if you think you’re about to launch a fashion hit and you want to go after the knock-offs while the hit lasts, the design of the fabrics you use could be the critical factor.

“I know it when I see it” is a 50 year old classic from the pornography wars that immortalized Justice Stewart. Jacobellis v. Ohio, 378 U.S. 184 (1964). It is about as unhelpful as law can be as a guide for the future. And it may be as close as federal courts can get to generalize about copyright protection for fashion designs until the Copyright Act is changed to explicitly protect them.

Blog Varisty Brands cheerleading costume copyright 6th Cir August 19 2015

Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment

Village Person Wins Legal Fees in Key Copyright Termination Case

Victor Willis is a songwriter and original member of the Village People. He wore the police and naval officer costumes. His writing credits include “Y.M.C.A.” Like most then and many now, he transferred his copyrights to others.

Village People songs are still valuable. Spotify shows 13 million plays of “Y.M.C.A.” by Village People alone. The Copyright Act allows creators to cash in on lasting success by getting their rights ownership back after a minimum of 35 years. Willis sent copyright termination notices in 2011 to do just that.

The idea behind the right to terminate copyright grants was partly to fix the old copyright act’s failure. There was a “renewal term” that was supposed to give copyright ownership back to the creators. After business people got to exploit the works for a first term, the creators were to get their chance in the renewal term. It didn’t work that way. Publishers, record labels, managers and others in the music industry got the creators to sign away their renewal term rights most of the time.

When the current law was written, the termination procedure was supposed to be a slam dunk for creators. So what happened when Willis sent his termination notices as required by the law? He got sued.

Trying to recreate what happened 35 years ago, there are going to be missing pieces. Legitimate questions come up about who wrote what and who played what. Memories and resumes get embellished. In this case, there were questions about what percentage of songs Willis owned and what percentage belonged to co-authors.

But the people whose rights were being terminated sued Willis and claimed he was entitled to nothing. That was only the beginning.

After defeating the argument he could not unilaterally terminate his copyright grants despite the fact the law says he can, he had to win a series of summary judgment motions saying the statute of limitations killed his rights or he just waited too long. He had to win a jury trial on most of the songs earlier this year.

The Copyright Act allows for the “prevailing party” to be awarded legal fees. Fees are not automatic. It’s up to the Court. Two days ago, Judge Moskowitz who is the chief federal judge in San Diego, ordered the parties that fought the Willis terminations to pay him every penny he requested for four years of litigation, more than half a million dollars. The order is careful to say that the parties resisting the terminations did not act frivolously, with an improper motive, or make unreasonable factual or legal arguments “on the whole.”

Judge Moskowitz’ explanation of a key factor favoring an award of legal fees to Willis comes straight out of congressional hearings almost forty years ago when the current law was on the table. They say the termination section was designed to “safeguard authors against unremunerative transfers” and address “the unequal bargaining position of authors, resulting in part from the impossibility of determining a work’s value until it has been exploited.”

The people who must pay the legal fees may appeal or try to work out a deal with Willis to take less. It would hardly be surprising if the fight goes until there are no legal options left. Yet it seems clear that if termination rights under the current law are to succeed where the old renewal term failed, creators must be able to enforce their rights without getting more than half a million dollars of legal help to do it.

Blog Willlis Fee Award Order September 15 2015

Posted in Uncategorized | Tagged | Leave a comment

Record Labels Make Sirius XM Deal While Flo & Eddie Keep Fighting

Last Friday SiriusXM filed a report with the Securities Exchange Commission saying it was paying $210 million to the three major labels and ABKO records to settle the labels’ me-too Flo & Eddie lawsuit against it. It’s the closest thing to a news release any of them made. The news got out a few minutes later, however, and the only real question remaining unanswered is what this does to the Flo & Eddie lawsuits.

Capitol, Sony, Warner and ABKO won a court ruling in California state court on the heels of Flo & Eddie’s federal court victory there. The labels excel in making deals, and they must have been happy to let someone else do the heavy legal lifting on the question of whether California’s copyright laws covering pre-1972 sound recordings require licensing internet radio spins from the rights owners.

Flo & Eddie had the legal arguments. The labels had 80% of the pre-1972 recordings played on SiriusXM.

The Second and Ninth Circuit courts of appeals are the next venues for the Flo & Eddie lawsuits, and it seems unlikely those courts will fail to notice that Sirius’ argument against pre-1972 royalties should be taken with 210 million grains of salt. At the same time, Flo & Eddie’s chances for optimizing settlement dollars may have gone down.

If you buy 80% of a business in one transaction, the price of the remaining 20% usually goes down. But unlike a single business where you buy a substantial majority of ownership, all the pre-1972 songs played on Sirius are not a single lump and their quality and popularity vary widely. So Flo & Eddie may have some disproportionally valuable recordings to bargain with. They also have a settlement tool minority owners of a business often have—the ability to make the majority’s life miserable.

Finally, the SiriusXM deal may mean that Flo & Eddie won’t try to settle and instead go for a jury trial on the amount of damages their class members are entitled to. In California, a jury trial would be in the same federal court where a jury awarded Marvin Gaye’s heirs $7.3 million against Pharrell Williams and Robin Thicke for “Blurred Lines.” So it might not be the worst place to be.

The SiriusXM settlement announcement is in the Form 8-K they filed June 26, and this is the entire statement:

On June 17, 2015, our subsidiary, Sirius XM Radio Inc., entered into an agreement with Capitol Records LLC, Sony Music Entertainment, UMG Recordings, Inc., Warner Music Group Corp. and ABKCO Music & Records, Inc. to settle the case titled Capitol Records LLC et al. v. Sirius XM Radio Inc., No. BC-520981 (Super. Ct. L.A. County), which challenged our use of sound recordings fixed prior to February 15, 1972 (“pre-1972 recordings”). Pursuant to the settlement, we will pay the plaintiffs, in the aggregate, $210 million on or before July 15, 2015 and the plaintiffs will dismiss their lawsuit with prejudice. The settlement resolves all past claims as to our use of pre-1972 recordings owned or controlled by the plaintiffs and enables us, without any additional payment, to reproduce, perform and broadcast such recordings in the United States through December 31, 2017. As part of the settlement, we have the right, to be exercised before December 31, 2017, to enter into a license with each plaintiff to reproduce, perform and broadcast its pre-1972 recordings from January 1, 2018 through December 31, 2022. The royalty rate for each such license will be determined by negotiation or, if the parties are unable to agree, binding arbitration. The plaintiffs have represented and warranted to us that in the United States they own, control or otherwise have the right to contract with respect to approximately 80% of the pre-1972 recordings we have historically used.

Posted in Uncategorized | 5 Comments

Flo & Eddie Lose in Florida

When I learned Flo & Eddie filed lawsuits in California, New York and Florida seeking internet radio royalties for their pre-1972 Turtles recordings unprotected by federal copyright law, my first reaction was California and New York make a lot of sense. But Florida? The federal district court in Miami saw it the same way and threw the lawsuit out two days ago. Flo & Eddie, Inc. v Sirius XM Radio, Inc. Case No. 13-23182 (2015 SD Fla.)

Flo & Eddie and their legal team have been unstoppable against Sirius and Pandora until now. In addition to winning in the courtroom, they increased awareness of these arcane copyright issues beyond the music industry where checks are written and cashed based on how the law is interpreted.

Judge Darrin P. Gayles is a distinguished young jurist whose decision in the Florida case is frank and succinct. He surveys the Flo & Eddie lawsuits with almost the same claims in the three states and writes it “is common knowledge that California and New York are the creative centers of the Nation’s art world.”

So California has a statute recognizing and protecting pre-1972 sound recordings which is the cornerstone of Flo & Eddie’s wins there. New York has a well-developed group of common law copyright cases which supported the win there. But “Florida is different.”

Florida lacks specific legislation covering sound recording property rights. It has almost no judicial opinions interpreting common law copyright related to the arts. So the only way for Flo & Eddie to win was if the court created “a new property right in Florida…The Court declines to do so.”

The decision defers to the Florida legislature for that task. Softening the blow, it takes the time to knock down one of Sirius’ arguments which might have interfered with arguing for new legislation. It’s the only point Sirius gave up in the victory.

Flo & Eddie did not just lose an argument in the lawsuit, they lost the lawsuit. The decision says that and the online docket shows the lawsuit terminated as of Tuesday.

The Flo & Eddie team’s success up till now persuades me they had good reasons to sue in Florida, but the reasons aren’t obvious. If there are grounds for appealing this decision, they are not obvious either. Sirius was 0 and 2 going into this round, so they must be relieved. Appeals to the Ninth Circuit federal appeals court in California and the Second Circuit in New York will be the next venues in this playoff series. Now it’s 2 to 1.

Posted in Uncategorized | 1 Comment